Ponds in southern Iran, a symbol of compatibility with nature(Fars and Hormozgan province)

Ponds or reservoirs for storing fresh water and rain in the south are strangely admirable. Smart, compatible with climate and environment. During my various trips to South Fars and Hormozgan, I was always interested in an opportunity to visit a pond during the restoration or construction, which I have not been able to do so far.. I searched the sources about the structure of the pond and found a complete article that can provide good information to those interested in these systems, which I have summarized below..

A set of ponds near the city of Khunj, Fars province

The word pond

Water storage, ponds, lagoons, factories, etc (Dehkhoda, 1377)they say. With this description, the word "barka" is used in later Islamic Persian sources to mean a lot of water storage. A type of water reservoirs in most parts of Iran “Cistern” And in some places like Birjand “Store”, Hoz, Barke, Manba and in other cities of Iran with names such as: Chicken and chicken)in Saveh( And Hud, probably another form of Hoz )In Jandaq and Biabank(  is read.

Like most of the houses on the road between Nayin and Anark, which are famous for the reservoir, and the meaning of the water reservoir is for the caravans in Yazd also to the reservoir. “Oombar” Called. In other Islamic lands, the existence of this type of reservoirs has been mentioned with the names of Musanq in Egypt, Sardaba in Turkmenistan, Khazan in Palestine, Hoz in Herat..

The reservoir in the south of the country is usually known as bêrka. But sometimes also “burqa” It is pronounced. Pond is defined as a pond, a small reservoir and a pit where water is standing. In any case, the pond or reservoir is of special importance in the south of Fars, and in fact, the ponds are a symbol of human use of nature.. Some believe that the pond has two parts “On” It means next to and ” That” It means mountain(In local terms) It is formed and refers to the buildings that are built on the side of the mountain and the waterway, which is changed to Birch in the plural form in Arabic..

A proposal to revive the ponds, the fresh water storage system in the northern areas of the Persian Gulf / The author is Ali Hejbari / Scientific Quarterly Journal of Parse Archaeological Studies / Number 19 / sixth year / Spring 1401

historical background

On the one hand, there are very few archaeological surveys and researches in the southern region of the country. The first person who provided accurate information from the point of view of archeology “Orwell Stein” is. who, during several trips to Sistan, North and South Baluchistan and the shores of the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf, was able to identify and record a large number of ancient sites.. On the other hand, a part of Iran's architecture, such as water reservoirs, was neglected and unknown for a long time, and it received less attention in architectural and archeological studies.. It goes without saying that fresh water plays a significant role in early settlements. At first, the reservoir was a pit that was filled with rainwater and floods, these reservoirs are located in Sistan and Baluchistan.”hotak” called.

Gradually, mankind began to store water in these pits and finally started to create water storage in the required place.

In Iran, since ancient times, due to the lack of water in the rural areas of this land, water was highly valued and there were great places of worship for the prayer of the god Anahita, the guardian of water. )Venus( had established. Nevertheless, the water reservoir was one of the buildings that were used for the supply and storage of water from a very distant time, especially in areas with permanent water supply. )fountain and aqueduct( or seasonal )Rain( It was relied upon, invented and developed. One of the oldest examples of water storage in Iran was found near the Choghazanbil ziggurat, dating back to 1250 BC, and the flourishing era of Ayam civilization..

Reservoirs of the Persian Gulf basin

Most of the reservoirs are located in Hormozgan and southern Fars provinces “pond” are famous. Ponds can be seen everywhere from Firozabad to the south and the coast of the Persian Gulf. With this description, ponds can be seen in the cities of Larestan, Gerash, Khanj, Lamard, Mehr, Bestak, especially in Oz, which are usually circular in the form of cylinders with a dome on top, but in some villages there are also a few ponds. There are rectangular shapes. Usually, residents of these cities provide part of their water needs from water storage; However, recently, with the transfer of water from the Salman Farsi Dam, the natives of Larestan, Gerash and Khanj counties use less water reservoirs as in the past.. It can be rightly said that since the people in Larestan learned the art of making ponds, the civilization there has made great progress. The difference between the reservoirs in this area and other famous examples in Iran is in the engineering of the water entry and exit system. The reservoirs in this area do not have stairs to reach Pashir, that is, people used a device called a bucket to collect water.. Many southern cities are known for their numerous water reservoirs, water reservoirs that were designed and used by engineers years ago to manage water resources, an intelligent architecture that is still used today in the water crisis and drought that threatens different regions of the country. It can be a model for urban development and resource management. The smartness of Iran's traditional architecture in building aqueducts, wind turbines and reservoirs can be well connected with modern science and become a plan to solve the problem of water shortage in different regions.. But sometimes we see the destruction of a number of ponds, and of course sometimes the repair and equipping of these buildings happens in the course of development in different cities..

The available evidence shows that the space around water reservoirs in historical cities is one of the most important public spaces and the interaction of all citizens..

 Reservoirs in the historical city of Lar, being located in the center of the neighborhoods, lead to and exit the main roads and access.. This has caused the main structure of Lar city to become a radial access network. The shape of the historical fabric of Lar is completely influenced by the location of water reservoirs. In other words, with the central location of the reservoir, most of the houses are arranged regardless of the environmental conditions around the reservoir or in contact with the road leading to the reservoir. The oldest reservoir in Larestan region was built in 950 A.H. Another place that has been mentioned in the construction of the pond is Oz in the south of Fars. The collection of water reservoirs in the city of Evaz in Fars province is similar to the water reservoirs in other regions and ports of the Persian Gulf..

A collection of eleven ponds in the city of Oz

Components of southern ponds

ponds in southern Iran including: Reservoir, dome, water entrance waterways, openings, pond entrance steps, porches, roofs and decorations and equipment such as: belonging to the band and light and… هستند.

1- to the water tank “dam pond” And sometimes “he” Called. Since water reservoirs are usually built by local benefactors, their depth and diameter mostly depend on their budget and personal credit.. To build a tank on four sides called a board”Pregar” They put ropes and fixed them to the four sides of the pond. In the middle of this board there is a hole through which the ropes are passed and the architect goes around the pond to determine the perimeter of the pond.. The floor and walls of the tank were made of stone and mortar in the past, but today they are made of stone and cement (you can) They make it so that water does not penetrate or leave it. If the pond is broken, there is a possibility of urban and rural sewage entering it, or in some cases, water reservoirs that are full are quickly emptied..

2- pond tank (cylinder) It is measured and half of it is marked by a strong and thick stone, and this stone is called “half stone” or Nemah NEMAH, which determines the volume and size of the pond. to the inner wall of the pond ” the list” They say lestah.

3- In a part of the body of the tank, stones in the wall in a zigzag shape more than one meter wide with strong cut stones as stairs or ” pagan” They make paganah. They use the stairs to enter the reservoir. It seems that in the past they were also called Pakone.

4- To the gates of the pond that gave access to the tank to collect water from the lowest part of the pond ” lion's mouth” Or ” Dhan Birka” The room goes to the skylight above it ” The heart” they say.

5-  Usually, an inscription was installed above the door and above its exterior. The inscription of the ponds is mostly stone and usually contains the name of the pond, the name of the builder, the year of construction and the name of the pond architect..

6- Before the water enters the pond, small ponds called ” valley hand” Or they make a valley so that, in addition to acting as an accelerator, preventing the destruction of the pond due to water pressure, it also takes the waste materials with the water and then the water enters the pond..

7- To the water transfer path to the pond as well ” corridor” Called. Also, sometimes they created piles of soil in the water path to direct the water to the pond, which is called an embankment in the local language..

8- The dimensions of the water inlet hole to the pond “how-to” Or “before ” It depends on the place where the pond is built, such as the channel, the slope, and the size of the pond.

9- to the place of water collection “Ti Takh ” Called. Usually, the number of ponds is two, but in large ponds, their number reaches four or more. They build the roofs opposite each other so that the air flows well in the pond, so that in addition to the movement of the water surface, it cools the reservoirs and the place of the roof; Therefore, in the past, many passers-by used to rest in the ponds along the way.. A hole can be seen on the top of the roof to install a wheel for dredging the pond, so called “Shall Kash” Called. to the sediments inside the pond as well “Shell” Or “Nile shell” they say.

10- In some ponds, the roof was built in the form of an arched tunnel, which was actually a place to shelter passers-by from the overwhelming heat of summer days and also a place for many travelers to spend their summer vacations. (Like: The five ponds of Bandar Kong). Sometimes they built a room in front and connected to the tee-takh to rest and create shade, which is known as the front of the tee-takh.. If a separate room is created next to the pond for rest and accommodation “the blood” They used to say.

11- Covering ponds or “Bon-e Barke ” It is a dome that was built on the main tank of the pond. Building domes for ponds was a very difficult task; Therefore, expert architects were able to implement this technique. The materials used in the dome are mostly stone and plaster with a coating of saroj, which is sometimes used instead of saroj, which is a good protection for the stone and plaster used in the construction of the dome, and on the other hand, prevents penetration to some extent. The heat and the cold go to the pond. Sometimes coral stones were used to build a dome on the pond at the edges of the sea. The architects first built the pond tank and left it alone for a while until it filled with water and settled down, and then they started building walls and domes to prevent the bottom of the tank from breaking due to falling stones and also Less danger of workers falling from the dome into the pond. They followed this rule during the restoration.

12- In order for the dome of the pond to have a solid foundation, first of all, around the tank hole, a 2-meter-wide circular stone wall with matte plaster and lime is built, on which the base of the dome rests.. This is the foundation in the local language “Curse” Or “Pond tablet” are called.

13- At the top of the dome, a carved cylindrical stone piece was installed, which “Cockroach” It is famous and can be seen from a distance. Some people believe that the philosophy of making this stone standing on the dome was as a sign of masculinity for the fertility of the sky for rain.. Kakel is the last part that is installed on the construction of the pond.

14- In Titakh, a stone with a height of 75 cm and a width of one meter “Bump”  It was installed to prevent people and animals from falling into the pond as a shelter.

15- The water outlet hole was installed in front of the water inlet so that when the pond overflows, excess water can be removed from there..

16- Next to the pond is a smooth place with stones and plaster (Nowadays with cement) They built it in the direction of Qibla so that people can pray on that clean surface, from this side to that “Namazgah” they say.

17- To Akhiya (Wooden support in the wall) to which Esther's reins were tied in the past” Mal Ban” It was said.

18- In the past, a device called frankincense was used to transfer water from ponds, which consisted of a stick placed on a shower and two “heart” The water in the door was hung at both ends with a rope. But nowadays, water is pumped into tankers and transported. Some people named “Saqqah”، “Frankincense” And the ” broken” They were responsible for transporting water to homes. Nowadays, water pumps are sometimes used to transfer water.

19- “Peace of mind” or the sore eye, which is called in some parts of Fars “Soluk-Duluk” it is famous. including triangular designs of mostly dark colored textiles with natural materials such as salt and charcoal as well as sacred plants such as thyme and esfand, which were hung in various places, including ponds, to prevent the evil eye.

Most of the reservoirs have a deep and strong connection with the Waqf tradition. One of the functions of waqf in the society discussed in this research is in the restoration and maintenance of religious and public buildings.. The dimensions of maintaining water reservoirs in the structure of societies are very wide. The water storage and its endowment was a good tradition and a social duty that was carried out by the rich and people who had financial means.. The reservoirs were managed by the residents of each locality and no one was charged for using them.

There is a pond near the old one, the mentioned external parts are visible in it.
The interior view of the pond full of water and foothills

Introduction of several ponds

-Although our knowledge about the first reservoirs in the region is insignificant, according to the available documents and records, “lower pond” It seems that it was one of the oldest water reservoirs in the city of Evaz.

-Salafi pond was probably one of the oldest ponds in southern Persia. The construction date of this building reaches about 750 years ago, that is, the Timurid period. The Salafi pond was built by Haj Mohammad Shamsayan in 89 1 AH and was revived in 1391 AH by the efforts of Mohammad Damin Rafei of the region..

-The biggest pond in Evaz city is Mulla Mohammad pond, which is one of the prominent and famous ponds in Larestan city.. This pond is known by the name of its founder Mullah Muhammad Karamati. Mulla Mohammad pond is circular and has a beautiful dome. This pond has been repaired and restored in several stages and it was probably a building from the Afsharia period, which was registered on June 30, 1377 under number 2038..

-The dimensions of the Kal pond in Gerash city are 5 meters high and 3 meters thick. The pond was registered on the 27th of December 1379 with number 3292 in the list of national monuments. The volume of Ganj Bahr reservoir in Gerash city of Fars province with a diameter of 29 meters and a height of 21 meters is equal to 13872.92 cubic meters of water..

-The volume of Daryadolt reservoir in Bandar Kong, Hormozgan province, with a diameter of 28 meters and a height of 14 meters, is 8620 cubic meters of water..

-A blessing “five” A historical reservoir in the city of Kong, one of the functions of the central part of the city of Bandar Lange, which was built at the end of the Qajar period and has 4 arms of 20 meters with a rectangular section, and in the middle of these four rectangular sections, there is a tank with a round shape; For this reason, the name of the pond has been given as five or five ponds.

-The area known as eleven ponds near Payam Noor University of Oz, which in recent years is still being added to its number of ponds..

-The Qavam Bushehr reservoir was built more than 10 years ago during the Qajar period.

Mulla Mohammad pond in Oz city of Fars province
Mulla Mohammad Oz pond
Introduction of Mulla Mohammad pond
A proposal to revive the ponds, the fresh water storage system in the northern areas of the Persian Gulf / The author is Ali Hejbari / Scientific Quarterly Journal of Parse Archaeological Studies / Number 19 / sixth year / Spring 1401

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۳ Responses

  1. Ahmed Issa Nia Qara says:

    Hello, really, the water of Anyars and aqueducts was the adaptation of ancient Iranians to nature and how much the people of that time cared about water

  2. Hosseinpur says:

    Hello. Unfortunately, some municipalities in the city destroy water storages instead of repairing them.. If it is not good for drinking, at least the storage of water is good for green spaces.

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